By Henok Amanuel, Professor of Economics

The burgeoning Russia-India economic alliance, against the backdrop of a fragmented global order, represents wider shifts in international trade and alliances. Their deepening partnership, conducting an increasing volume of trade in local currencies, reflects the growing influence of BRICS nations in shaping multi-polarity. For African countries, often caught in great power contests, these realignments impact economic options and developmental pathways. Nations in the strategically significant Horn of Africa find themselves at an inflection point, where balanced engagement with diverse poles of influence is critical.

The Russia-India Nexus: Pillars of a BRICS Economic Architecture

Western sanctions on Russia have provided India an opportunity to secure discounted oil and commodities amid rising global inflation. With total bilateral trade expected to hit $30 billion by 2025, India has emerged as Russia’s largest oil exporter after China (Reuters, 2022). Payment systems based on local currencies and Russia’s Mir payment network bypass the SWIFT system, decreasing reliance on the US dollar (BBC, 2022). This sets a template for other BRICS countries to settle trades in domestic currencies.

For both Russia and India, this pivot creates immediate economic gains. Russia maintains critical export revenue while India secures fossil fuel imports to power its rapid growth. Enhanced bilateral cooperation may also position their domestic payment systems and currencies to gain wider traction in BRICS-based transactions. In the longer term, reduced exposure to the dollar grants them greater autonomy over economic decision-making amid geopolitical tensions.

But dedollarization also poses currency risks, especially for Russia given the Ruble’s limited footprint and India’s currency management challenges (Forbes, 2022). Volatility and convertibility issues remain a barrier to localization in BRICS trade. The success of currency swap mechanisms between Brazil, Russia, India, and China will shape multi-polarity in the global financial system (Chatham House, 2021).

Opportunities for the Global South: Trade, Aid, and Investment Reconfigurations

Beyond trade realignment, the Russia-India nexus may significantly redirect capital flows and development financing within the Global South. As Western funds drain from multilateral institutions like the World Bank and IMF that low-income nations depend on, experts predict BRICS institutions will expand their remit (ODI, 2022).

Already, the New Development Bank and the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank have approved over $80 billion in funding for the developing world. Now, Russia is exploring integrating Mir payment capabilities for development aid and investments. However, governance and environmental standards remain key concerns regarding BRICS funding mechanisms (ECFR, 2022).

Meanwhile, China has massively expanded investment across Africa through its Belt and Road Initiative. However, debt risks for economies with poor credit ratings and corruption issues have raised red flags about excessive exposure (CGTN Africa, 2022). Carefully assessing each funding option’s strategic and economic benefits will enable developing countries to balance opportunities with fiscal prudence.

The Horn Weighs Opportunities and Trade-Offs

The diverse economic profiles of countries in the Horn of Africa showcase the complex considerations regional nations face. Ethiopia, with its vast natural resources and rapid growth, is exploring currency swap arrangements with Russia and India to mitigate forex shortages while potentially boosting oil imports (The Africa Report, 2022). However, its widening budget deficit may necessitate sustained multilateral budgetary support.

Smaller Somalia remains highly dependent on remittances, estimated at 40% of GDP (World Bank, 2022). Its nascent banking system and currency imply high risks with dramatic shifts from dollar reliance. Yet, in the fragile state-building process, calibrated engagement of BRICS investment in areas like infrastructure could build sustainable capacity without sparking unrest (Heritage Institute, 2021).

Regional bodies urge greater cross-border economic integration between Horn members as a buffer against global shocks. This path aligns with the African Continental Free Trade Agreement while increasing joint leverage when negotiating external financing (IGAD, 2020).

Navigating a New World Order: Opportunities through Strategic Balancing

As emerging economies reshape global trade and payments architecture, how astutely African nations leverage resulting shifts will impact economic sovereignty and development trajectories. While deeper ties with BRICS offer avenues for self-sufficiency, they also necessitate transparency, local ownership, and civil society input to ensure effectiveness (Carnegie Endowment, 2021).

Long-term sustainability lies not in reactionary swings between competing poles but in deliberate efforts toward balanced engagement leveraging Africa’s strategic geography and resources (African Union, 2020). This prudent negotiation for mutual gain harnesses the multipolar system’s fluidity while insulating against disruptive realignments.


The Russia-India convergence represents deeper movements spurred by a retreating tide of Western influence over global goods and capital flows. African states find themselves at a pivotal point to redefine partnerships upholding values of equitable growth. While trading blocs like BRICS bring new opportunities, only savvy navigation balancing self-interest and regional cooperation will unlock lasting prosperity. The decisions of influential regional leaders like Ethiopia and Kenya may set the tone for smaller Horn states. As older economic paradigms fade, Africa’s internal strength and clarity of vision are essential to maintain control over its promising future.

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